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The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) generates state-level estimates for 23 measures of substance use and mental health problems for four age groups: the entire state population over the age of 12 (12+); individuals age 12 to 17; individuals age 18 to 25; and individuals age 26 and older (26+). Since state estimates of substance use and abuse were first generated using the combined 2002-2003 NSDUHs, and continuing until the most recent state estimates based on the combined 2005-2006 surveys, Arkansas has consistently ranked among the 10 States with the highest rates on the following measures (Table 1):
Table 1: Arkansas is among the States with the highest rates of the
This is one in a series of brief state-based reports intended to give the reader a quick overview of substance abuse and mental health issues within a single state. The data derive principally from national surveys conducted by the Office of Applied Studies, a component of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Sources for all data used in this report appear at the end.
|Past Month Use of an Illicit Drug Other Than Marijuana||12-17|
|Past Year Non-medical Use of Pain Relievers||12+, 12-17, 18-25|
Abuse and Dependance
Questions in NSDUH are used to classify persons as dependent on or abusing specific substances, based on criteria specified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV) (American Psychiatric Association, 1994).
Rates of past year alcohol dependence or abuse in Arkansas have been at or below the national rates (Chart 1). However, rates of past year dependence on or abuse of illicit drugs have been at or above the Nation's rates (Chart 2). This was particularly true in the 2005-2006 surveys for all age groups.
Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities
According to the National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS) annual survey,3 in 2006 there were 38 (76%) private nonprofit facilities. Another 6 facilities (12%) were private for-profit, and the remaining facilities were owned or operated by Federal, State, or local government. Since 2002, the number of treatment facilities in Arkansas has declined from 59 in 2002, to 50 in 2006. The decrease is principally attributable to a loss of nine private for-profit facilities within the State.
Although facilities may offer more than one modality of care, in 2006, 43 of 50 Arkansas facilities (86%) offered some form of outpatient treatment. An additional 20 facilities offered some form of residential care; 2 programs offered opioid treatment; and 18 physicians and 5 programs were certified to deliver buprenorphine treatment for opiate addiction.
In 2006, 38 Arkansas facilities (76%) received some form of Federal, State, county, or local government funds, and 22 facilities had agreements or contracts with managed care organizations for the provision of substance abuse treatment services.
State treatment data for substance use disorders are derived from two primary sources'an annual one-day census in N-SSATS and annual treatment admissions from the Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS).4 In the 2006 N-SSATS survey, Arkansas showed an one-day total of 3,624 clients in treatment, 3,041of whom (84%) were in outpatient treatment. Of the total number of clients in treatment on this date, 74 (2%) were under the age of 18.
Since 2002, there has been a steady increase in the annual number of admissions to treatment with more than one substance of abuse.5 Notably, the percentage of admissions with at least three substances has increased from none in 1992 to 26 percent of all admissions in 2006 (Chart 3).
Chart 4 shows the percentage of admissions mentioning particular drugs or alcohol at the time of admission. Across the last 15 years, there has been a steady decline in the number of admissions mentioning alcohol at treatment admission and substantive increases in the mentions of marijuana, methamphetamine, and opiates other than heroin.
Across the years for which TEDS data are available, Arkansas has also seen a substantial shift in the constellation of problems present at treatment admission. Alcohol-only admissions have declined from more than 39 percent of all admissions in 1992 to just over 18 percent in 2006. Concomitantly, drug-only admissions have increased from 19 percent in 1992, to 42 percent in 2006 (Chart 5).
Unmet Need For Treatment
NSDUH defines unmet treatment need as an individual who meets the criteria for abuse of or dependence on illicit drugs or alcohol according to the DSM-IV, but who has not received specialty treatment for that problem in the past year.
Rates of unmet drug treatment need for adolescents in 2004-2005 and 2005-2006 were among the highest in the country (Chart 6).
Rates of unmet alcohol treatment need have been more variable than those of drug treatment need (Chart 7).